First was described by Jonathan Swift about 300 years ago:
by his contrivance, the most ignorant person at a reasonable charge, and with a little bodily labour, may write books in philosophy, poetry, politics, law, mathematics, and theology, without the least assistance from genius or study. GULLIVER’S TRAVELS. CHAPTER V: The Author permitted to see the Grand Academy of Lagado. By Jonathan Swift, 1726.
The most recent version was created by the group of MIT scientists 10 years ago:
Three computer science Ph.D. students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology—Jeremy Stribling, Max Krohn, and Dan Aguayo — created a program to generate nonsensical computer science research papers … [The program] SCIgen uses a “context-free grammar” to create word salad that looks like reasonable text from a distance but is easily spotted as nonsense by a human reader … The goal…was “to expose the lack of peer review at low-quality conferences that essentially scam researchers with publication and conference fees” … [SCIgen] found users across the globe, and … automatically generated creations were being accepted by scientific conferences and published in purportedly peer-reviewed journals…
[As a result of this successful scientific experiment] Academic publisher Springer this week is releasing SciDetect, an open-source program to automatically detect automatically generated papers [but still wasn’t able to find the proper tool to detect “nonsensical computer science research papers that were manually generated and continue to publish them].
–Hoax-detecting software spots fake papers By John Bohannon
See also: “Data & analysis don’t matter — we KNOW the truth”